On Monday, 30 leaders and heads of state will meet for a NATO summit in Brussels, Belgium, the headquarters of the 1949 security alliance.

In Joe Biden’s first NATO summit as US president, he will be eager to reassure his allies that “America is back” after a tumultuous four years of former American President Donald Trump, who declared NATO “obsolete”, called member countries “deadbeats”, and at first refused to explicitly endorse NATO’s mutual defence principle.

A new “2030 Strategic Concept” outlining how the alliance plans to address the various challenges it now faces is expected to be launched.

NATO’s current strategic concept dates back to 2010, but “didn’t take as seriously as it needed to the prospects of Russian aggression, and hardly mentioned China”, said James Goldgeier, an international relations professor at American University and former director for Russian, Ukrainian, and Eurasian Affairs on the National Security Council Staff.

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